Eliminate the interference problem
The major advantages that duck IgY(ΔFc) offers is that it can effectively eliminate the interference problem, which often occurs in immunochemical assays utilizing mammalian IgG. Duck IgY (ΔFc) is capable of binding to the specific antigen efficiently but yet it does not have any cross-reaction to other interferents. Even in the presence of a large number of interferents e.g., rheumatoid factor, complement, Fc receptor, bacterial Protein G and/or A in mammalian sera, the use of duck IgY(ΔFc) in immunological assays can greatly reduce the possibility of the false positive/negative reaction.
Increase detection accuracy
In enzyme immunoassays, our investigations have shown that duck IgY (ΔFc) does not react with the complement system, rheumatoid factor and Protein A. Thus, it can increase detection accuracy in immunological systems
Poor cross-reactivity to mammalian IgG
Duck IgY(ΔFc) exhibits poor cross-reactivity to mammalian IgG because of structural differences with mammalian IgG antibody, thus eliminating the unwanted reaction in immunological assays utilizing the anti-species antibody.
Avoid the interference of HAMA in “sandwich-type” immunoassays
Mouse monoclonal antibody has been widely used for in vivo diagnosis and therapy. In these cases, patients receiving monoclonal antibody are often induced an immune response of producing a nonspecific heterophilic antibody—human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA).
HAMA, reacting not only with mouse antibody but also with structurally closely related antibodies such as other mammalian IgGs, presents a big problem in immunodiagnostics especially in “sandwich-type” immunoassays such as ELISA. Since duck IgY(ΔFc) has no immunological cross-reactivity to mammalian IgG, the interference of HAMA in “sandwich-type” immunoassays can be avoided by replacing one or both of the capture and detecting antibody with duck IgY(ΔFc).
It is more humane to obtain antibody from egg yolk of ducks than from serum of sacrificed mammals. Duck IgY(ΔFc) production is also compatible with modern animal protection regulations.
One study showed that the largely phylogenetic difference between avian host animals and the antigens of mammalian sources increases the immune response; thus, avian antibody recognized more epitopes than the corresponding mammalian IgG and was relatively more reactive to the highly conserved protein.
On the whole, duck IgY(ΔFc) wins an advantage over mammalian IgG in many aspects. It is particularly suitable for use in immunological assays involving mammalian sera.